Henry L. Lennard, Ph.D. (7/2/1923 – 6/23/2005)

Henry L. Lennard, social psychologist, medical sociologist and urban scholar died in Venice, Italy, Thursday June 23rd, shortly after being admitted to hospital. He was 81. The International Making Cities Livable Conferences were his idea. He had organized several conferences in his own professional field before 1985, but two – on the subject of Ethics … Read more

“The European Square” Conference Report

Abstract On September 18 – 20, 2002 the first Conference on “The European Square” was held at Schloss Mirabell in Salzburg, Austria with the participation of mayors, councilors, planning directors, professors of architecture, planning and social sciences from twenty-two countries. Issues discussed included: the square as a representation of the city’s unique identity; the square … Read more

Genius of the European Square

One of the greatest inventions of the European city, indeed one could not conceive of most European cities without it, is the central town square or market place. This was a uniquely European invention, intimately connected to the development of democratic and representational self-government. Whether called agora, forum, piazza, plaza, Platz, platea, piata, námesti, rynek, … Read more