On September 18 – 20, 2002 the first Conference on “The European Square” was held at Schloss Mirabell in Salzburg, Austria with the participation of mayors, councilors, planning directors, professors of architecture, planning and social sciences from twenty-two countries.
Issues discussed included: the square as a representation of the city’s unique identity; the square as a catalyst for community engagement and social learning; policies concerning farmers markets, mixed use, appropriate new architecture, and traffic on the square; and essential features of successful squares.
Participants perceived current major threats to the European square as:
- Uncontrolled commercial and suburban development at the city’s periphery
- Mass tourism that turns the historic square into a tourist attraction
- The square’s increasing mono-functional character
- Promotion of information technology that attempts to replace social life on the square with the “virtual agora”.
Delegates called for an organization to study and protect the European square and to continue the dialogue and exchange of ideas among cities initiated at the Salzburg Conference.
The urban square has been a distinguishing characteristic of European cities in one form or another for over two thousand years, ever since the Ancient Greeks first created a place for people to gather in the agora. The agora was imitated by the Romans in the forum, and reinvented in the Middle Ages. From the eleventh to the fourteenth century hundreds of market squares were created as the center of new European cities both in Western and Eastern Europe.
If the city is the second most important invention of mankind, then the market square is the most important invention of European city-making. It is the heart of the city, the center of economic, civic, religious, social and cultural activity, the place for markets, festivals and celebrations. In order to function, social and economic life had to be organized through negotiation and consensus, by establishing democratic principles in the equitable use of place.
The traditional European square is a multifunctional urban space surrounded by an almost continuous wall of buildings, with small entrances and exits leading in and out, creating the feeling of an outdoor room. Most of the surrounding buildings are what we now call mixed-use shop/houses. They are complemented by important civic and religious edifices that are frequently, though not always, part of the contiguous urban fabric of the square, and emphasize its significance as the most important place in the city. In many Polish, and some Czech cities the importance of city hall is further accentuated by its placement at the center of the square.
The Salzburg Conference on “The European Square” was convened to draw attention to the significance of the European square; to exchange ideas and facilitate collaboration among cities with squares; to examine how aesthetic and economic features of individual squares contribute to the life of their city; and to increase understanding of the relationship between built form and urban social life.
At this conference, organized by the International Making Cities Livable Council, Mayors, councilors and representatives from twenty-four cities in Austria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain discussed issues affecting the survival of their squares as centers of economic, social and cultural life. Most cities also brought exhibits of their squares. Many others expressed interest in the theme of the conference by sending exhibits and documentation on their square.
The agenda for conference sessions included:
- The square as a catalyst for community engagement
- The square as a representation of the city’s unique identity
- The square as a market place
- Mixed use and diversity
- Appropriate balance between resident and tourist use of the square
- Essential features of successful squares
- The square as a social learning environment
- New architecture appropriate to the square
- Transportation issues and the successful square and
- Effects of commercial and residential development at the city’s periphery on the square’s economic viability
The square as a catalyst for community engagement
The high degree of face-to-face interaction on the traditional main square ensures a strong community of people who know, or recognize one another, and who know each other’s stories. To function in this way the square is multifunctional and adaptable for different activities, providing reasons for people to gather, to work together, to coordinate efforts, to prepare for community events, and to celebrate together. Former First Mayor Sven von Ungern-Sternberg (now Regierungspräsident, State of Süd Baden) saw the square as providing “a structured invitation for dialogue and social transactions.”
For Mayor Giustina Mistrello Destro of Padova, “The piazzas of Padova reflect the distinctive character of our city. They epitomize the historical and artistic heritage that also generates economic prosperity for the city. Even more, they provide a very rich social and civic life that goes back to the Roman period, that was revived during the Middle Ages, and that still today is one of the most important characteristics of our community.”
Edoardo Salzano, former Mayor for Urban Affairs for the City of Venice and Dean of the School of Planning explained that it is the configuration of shops, cafes, restaurants, businesses and private dwellings, civic, religious and institutional buildings around the square that provide diverse reasons for people to come to the square, increasing the opportunity for meetings between friends and neighbors. “Without public spaces designed and organized for being together,” Salzano asserted, “a city cannot be considered a city”.
In cities where automobile use is increasing and town squares have not yet been pedestrianized there is a sharpened awareness of the loss of traditional social life on the square. Both Professor Ivan Juras from Croatia and Professor Mustafa Letaim from Lybia called attention to this issue relating to squares in their countries.
Behavioral scientist Professor Henry Lennard explained the importance of the traditional multi-functional European square as a learning environment for social behavior that prepares children and young people for living in a heterogeneous and diverse social world.
In his plenary address to the delegates Professor Günther Bauer, former Director of the Salzburg Mozarteum, Salzburg’s University for Music and the Arts, explained the unique function of urban squares for festivals, celebrations and other playful aspects of human beings from children’s games to historic reenactments.
The square as a representation of the city’s unique identity
The main square epitomizes the city’s unique identity, its “genius loci”. Regional differences in architectural forms and materials, predominant architectural styles, characteristics and placement of focal buildings are uniquely combined to imbue each square with its individual personality, reflecting the town’s unique history. Inhabitants consider their main square represents what is most characteristic of their city. The existence of their square increases their pride and identification with their city. As Professor Mustafa Letaim from El-Fateh University, Tripoli said: “…streets and market squares play a more important role in one’s memory of a city than buildings themselves. It is the arrangement and the character of the urban space that defines what captures our attention and what remains in our memory… (Urban places) are where human contacts and interaction take place. They are the focal points and the most important elements of the (Libyan) cities’ urban structure.”
In Vigevano’s Piazza Ducale (above left) the painted, porticoed buildings from 1492 create a welcoming salon with a carpet-like paving design. “This was one of the first squares to be designed according to Renaissance architectural principles” Vigevano’s Assessore Umberto Sparano told conference participants. “It is such a harmonious composition that the great conductor Toscanini, who loved to spend time on the square, compared it to a classical symphony.”
The graceful beauty of Ascoli Piceno’s Piazza del Popolo (above center) owes much to the Renaissance porticoes that encircle and unify the space, the two dominant buildings, the Church of St. Francis, and Palazzo dei Capitani del Popolo, representing the power of the people, and the travertine marble paving polished smooth by the nightly passeggiata.
In Bruges, the towering Belfry of the Gothic Market Hall dominates the Markt and symbolizes the city. Siena’s Piazza Il Campo (above right) is fan shaped like a Greek auditorium, and slopes down to the backdrop of the Palazzo Pubblico (City Hall). Design guidelines set in 1309 prescribed the “burnt Siena” ochre tones of brick palaces and paving.
The significance of a square for the city’s inhabitants was demonstrated in Freiburg, Germany soon after World War Two. The medieval architecture around Münsterplatz had been almost totally destroyed. Freiburg’s citizens decided not to rebuild in the “modern” style, but to reconstruct the most historic buildings as they had been, and to maintain the medieval scale and character of new buildings.
Hildesheim’s square was rebuilt in the 1950s along modern principles, but citizens never felt an attachment to their new square. Thomas Kulenkampff, Stadtbaurat for the City of Hildesheim explained the unusual events that followed: “To understand the history of the market place in Hildesheim it is important to know that Hildesheim is a very old town which was totally destroyed during the last days of the 2nd World War. The buildings were rebuilt in the modern style in the late ‘50s, and the square was enlarged.
When the Stadtsparkasse (bank) planned a new building in the late ‘60s, and there was talk about extending the square, a spirited public discussion started. At the end of the discussion the people decided that all the buildings constructed during the ‘50s should be demolished. The idea to enlarge the square was abandoned. The medieval architecture was rebuilt and the square regained its smaller, historic dimensions. Now the square is once again the center of the city, and enables citizens to identify with their town.”
The square as a market place
The medieval market was one of the most important reasons for the creation of Europe’s squares; whether for local produce or long distance trade goods (salt, iron, cloth, etc.) the granting of a ‘market right’ gave impetus to the design of a market place and the careful layout of shops and houses around it. The economic significance of the market square diminished over the centuries, and in the 20th century many squares were used for through traffic and as parking lots.
When Europe’s cities reclaimed their squares from the automobile during the 1970s there was a resurgence of markets, notably farmers’ markets. These attract not only local residents but also the population of the entire region. The farmers’ market is a festive, colorful, and necessary event that draws people together throughout the year. Market vendors and those who frequent the market know one another by sight or by name and this familiarity generates a sense of well-being.
Most markets take place once or twice a week and are highly valued by inhabitants. Jiří Vaniček, former Mayor of Tabor in the Czech Republic told how, when the administration planned to move the Wednesday market from the main square, (Žižkovo Náměsti) to another location inhabitants protested vehemently, and insisted it remain on the main square.
The farmers’ vegetable market is a main function of Vöcklabruck’s Stadtplatz (above left), and has been famous for one hundred years. The market takes place every Wednesday and for this day the entire square is now closed to traffic. The small town (12,000 inhabitants) is in a rural area of Austria, but, as Andreas Rapp, reported, “in total, 72,000 people visit Stadtplatz each week. We started to think what it is that makes our square so frequented. It is the traditional market on Wednesday that draws 15 – 20,000 people on that day alone; but also a small Saturday morning farmers’ market that has developed extremely well.”
Freiburg has one of the most extensive and successful farmers’ markets in Europe, which takes place on the large Münsterplatz (above right) encircling the cathedral. The north side of the cathedral consists exclusively of farmers and gardeners selling their own produce; wholesalers display their imported fruit and vegetables on the south side. While the market takes place every morning except Sunday, from 7.00am to 1.00pm, Saturday is the busiest day when the square is filled to overflowing. Most of Freiburg’s inhabitants shop on Münsterplatz sometime during the week. The daily market has also played an important role in ensuring Freiburg’s preeminence as a primary regional shopping center. Together with Freiburg’s decision to retain two major department stores on the west side of the square, explained Dr. Sven von Ungern-Sternberg (at the time First Mayor of Freiburg) the daily farmers’ market provided a powerful stimulus for the economic life of the city.
Karl Auwärter from the City of Munich emphasized how important Munich’s Viktualienmarkt is in supporting economic and social life in the center of the city. The Viktualienmarkt, he explained, is a combination of farmers selling their own produce, wholesalers selling high quality produce not only from Germany and Europe but from around the world, specialty stalls selling smoked meats, cheeses or wines, and half a dozen beer gardens and wine gardens set out beneath the chestnut trees. The market is open six days a week throughout the year and fills an extensive square that, together with the adjacent Marienplatz, forms the heart of Munich.
Mixed use and diversity
Urban squares with very diverse shops and facilities, including restaurants and coffee houses exhibit much more vitality and daily life. In some cities the main square is now dominated by institutional buildings, or banks. This tendency to monofunctionality, the displacement of diverse shops and services causes these squares to lose their appeal as a place for the community. Krzysztof Bieda, Professor of Architecture at Krakow Technical University and former Chief Architect, deplored this trend, illustrated in Krakow’s Rynek (main square) where six buildings are owned by banks, and there are in total eleven banking outlets on the square that have displaced diverse shops and services.
To maintain the square as the center of economic, and therefore social life requires a diversity of economic activity on the square, asserted Conference Organizer, Suzanne Crowhurst Lennard. The neighborhood campi in Venice, Padova’s Piazza delle Erbe and Piazza della Frutta, and Novy Jicin’s main square evidenced great diversity of shops and services, drawing inhabitants of varied ages and backgrounds to the squares. Among other cities that have been able to maintain a variety of economic activity on and around their squares are Freiburg, Germany, Strasbourg, France, Salamanca, Spain, and the Bavarian cities of Landshut and Straubing.
Appropriate balance between resident and tourist use of the square
Delegates pointed out that tourism per se is not necessarily incompatible with the square’s usability and function for its population, but that problems arise when tourists outnumber residents. For example, the main square in Cesky Krumlov in the Czech Republic (not represented in the exhibits) now entirely fails to serve community needs because it has focused too exclusively on tourist business.
Assessore Umberto Sparano described the challenge faced by many cities seeking to achieve an appropriate balance between resident and tourist use:
“The function of the Piazza Ducale, in Vigevano as one of the most important market places in the region was retained up to the late 1960s; it is also the seat of the municipality which was located under the porticoes of the piazza until 1910, (a continuity of functions over a long period of time).”
“We are working on the relation between the development of tourism and the way the city can be more livable for the residents. On the one hand Vigevano lives from its tourist attraction; on the other hand the people of Vigevano want to use the piazza for themselves and for civic, social and cultural events.”
“We hope from this confrontation and comparison of our experience with that of other countries there will be panels at future Making Cities Livable Conferences that lead to suggestions that will be useful for our problems in the city of Vigevano.“
Nový Jičín’s square, as described by Councillor Libor Dobeš and Dr. Zora Kudělková, has maintained great appeal for its local population, despite its designation as a World Cultural Monument. Councillor Dobeš pointed out that:
“The buildings at Nový Jičín’s square maintain their original functions with shops, banks, restaurants, and the town hall on the ground floor, and on the first and second floor are living areas, or flats. The only change is that during the 16th century after a big fire the buildings were rebuilt in stone, maintaining the arcades so that people could walk around the square at any time. We kept life there, life never escaped from the square. This is important.
“The square for centuries has been the place where people meet, where they shop. We are still able to maintain these functions, I would say primarily because the town of Nový Jičín owns approximately 80% of the houses around the town square, so we can more or less manage what kinds of businesses are there on the square and we can still make the right balance between commercial functions and living functions, people living there.”
Essential features of successful squares
As could be noted from the presentations and exhibits, there is no simple formula for a successful square, and every square is unique. Squares are fan shaped (Siena), trapezoidal (Venice’s Piazza San Marco), rectangular (Ascoli Piceno), triangular (Tübingen), funnel shaped (Telc), elliptical (Vigevano), oval (Verona), square (Salamanca), doughnut shaped (square – Kracow, or triangular – Olomouc), or broadened streets visually closed at each end (Landshut).
Studies conducted by Suzanne Crowhurst Lennard reveal that the European squares that are most successful in supporting social life and community have many physical and social elements in common. Physical design elements include visual enclosure; a human scale architectural frame; fountains, sculptures and street furniture that focus activity; seating, both formal and informal; sunlight and shelter from the elements in the form of arcades, trees, etc; paving designed for pedestrians; and a significant architectural backdrop. In addition, the square should be traffic free or traffic tamed, located at the crossing point of pedestrian routes and centrally located within a compact urban fabric.
Even a well designed square may be unsuccessful if certain essential social elements are not present: these include outdoor cafes and restaurants to provide a hospitable context for people to spend time there; daily or weekly farmers’ markets and special annual markets (e.g. Christmas markets and local produce markets); street entertainers; programmed events of all kinds (informational booths, political gatherings, school groups, games, musical and theatrical performances, open-air movies, etc.); and community festivals and celebrations (historic reenactments, religious festivals and processions, community parties, etc.).
The square as a social learning environment
Professor Henry Lennard reminded the delegates of the urban scholar Lewis Mumford’s claim that the primary function of cities is the acculturation and humanization of its inhabitants. The urban square, Lennard pointed out, is the place where much of this social and cultural learning occurs.
“We know that behavior is learned through observation and participation. Being in a multi-functional urban square offers many models and repeated examples to the young; they learn how others relate to family, friends, or to strangers. They learn through observation, participation and practice how to behave with both young and older people, with those of different social background, and also how to approach and relate to fellow citizens with physical or mental disabilities.”
Dean Edoardo Salzano stressed the importance of participation in the shared social world offered by the multi-functional urban square for all, and especially children and youth:
“It is important to include children and youth in a common social world, and to maintain an environment – the urban square – where all can partake in conversation, play and a range of social and cultural activities.
In most cities the urban square (or squares) is the one place that provides this opportunity.”
New architecture appropriate to the square
Since the main square is considered the most characteristic place in the city the construction of any new building on the square is seen as a highly symbolic act that shapes the identity of the city as a whole.
Ulm, Germany was heavily bombed during the war, but many of its thirteenth and fourteenth century brick and half timbered buildings, and the fine sandstone cathedral in the center of Münsterplatz (Cathedral Square) were spared. The buildings around Münsterplatz were reconstructed, maintaining the traditional shop/house use pattern, and the pitched roofs with gables fronting to the square.
Professor Dr. Peter Novak of Ulm’s Medical School, who has been a community representative on a number of city commissions had explained that Ulm city administration hired the renowned American architect Richard Meier in the 1990s to design a cultural center on Münsterplatz. His design, of white concrete and glass, ignored Ulm’s architectural heritage, its scale dwarfed the adjacent shop/houses, and its volume completely blocked the view of the cathedral from the main street. Citizens’ anger about the inappropriate building erected on their historic center, and disruption of their view of their familiar landmark (Ulm cathedral) led, according to Novak, to a change in city government.
Covering almost nine acres Jihlava’s main square, Masarykovo Náměsti (Masaryk Square) is one of the largest squares in the Czech Republic and is framed by handsome three and four story renaissance and baroque shop/houses. Since its foundation in the thirteenth century this vast rectangular space has been the center of Jihlava’s social, commercial and cultural life.
Vit Zeman, Magistrát from the city of Jihlava told the story of the construction of a modern department store on Masaryk Square. In 1983 the Communist government, against much protest, demolished a group of 13th century houses in the middle of the square and replaced them with a huge concrete department store and fast food diner. While it was a good decision to keep Masaryk Square as the main focus of commercial, as well as cultural and civic life, rather than developing a shopping mall on the city’s outskirts, the design and scale of the building are completely inappropriate to this historic setting. Vit Zeman reported that there is now discussion about rebuilding the department store at an appropriate scale and in a more compatible style.
A similar problem on Bonn’s Münsterplatz has now been rectified, reported Suzanne Crowhurst Lennard. A glass and concrete department store (Hertie) built during the 1960s, that completely lacked human scale and ignored the DNA of Bonn’s architectural heritage, has now been reconstructed in a sympathetic style that reflects the best characteristics of other buildings around the square.
Traffic and transportation policies
During the last thirty years most European cities have reclaimed their main squares from the automobile and returned them to the city’s inhabitants. Most have become pedestrian zones in which vehicle access is limited to certain times of day, and only for delivery, resident use, access to hotels, or for emergency purposes. Traffic calming techniques (Wohnstrasse, Verkehrsberuhigte Zone, etc) have been developed to create pedestrian-friendly access to the square.
Jörg-Hans Kaiser, Stadtbaurat from the City of Steyr (above left), Austria explained Steyr’s current efforts to control vehicular access to the square and restore the mix of residential, commercial and workshop uses that enable residents to live within walking distance of shops and workplace:
“Steyr lies on a peninsula between two rivers, the Steyr, and the Inns. The hills and the rivers make the city difficult for vehicles, but an ideal city for walking. Our greatest problem is how to manage car traffic and public transportation. They all end up in Stadtplatz, the main square. We are seeking a way to make Steyr a “Stadt der kurzen Wege”, a city of short distances, a city that is good for the feet (for walking) and not a city for the car.”
In Ravensburg (above right), Germany Mayor Hermann Vogler not only removed the 14,000 vehicles that were passing daily through the main square, Marienplatz, but also created four levels of safe, brightly lit parking beneath the square, accommodating 400 cars. The white walls of the parking garage are color coded and decorated with fine murals celebrating the city’s medieval towers, its tradition of festivals (“Rutenfest”), shopping and games.
Bertrand Guidon from the City of Rennes, France presented Mayor Edmond Hervé’s successful achievements over the last decade in restoring and renovating Rennes’s many historic squares (Place de l’Hôtel de Ville, Place Saint Michel, Place Rallier du Baty, Place du Champ Jacquet). These squares have now been freed from traffic and repaved, adjacent buildings have been restored, outdoor restaurants and cafes have appeared and the social life thus created has become a major attraction.
The challenge now facing the city, Mayor Hervé believes, is to make it possible for all inhabitants to participate in the life of the newly revitalized squares; that means, to make the squares accessible not only to those living in the center of the city but also to those living on the outskirts. To this end, and in order to reduce the number of cars entering the city, he has constructed the first line of an underground rail system, linking the outer suburbs with the center. In so doing Rennes has become the smallest European city ever to construct a subway system.
Effects of commercial and residential development at the city’s periphery on the square’s economic viability.
Uncontrolled development at the city’s periphery is a problem faced by all of the cities represented at the conference, as well as by other cities who had sent materials.
Dr. Suzanne Crowhurst Lennard discussed a number of strategies to combat this problem employed by cities represented in conference exhibits. In recent years St. Quentin in Northern France has begun to feel the effects of the discount stores and supermarkets springing up at its periphery. As the economic strength of the central square declines the city has developed an intensive program of animation to draw people back to the square. Before Christmas an ice-skating rink, a Christmas tree, and a Christmas market fill the square. In August truckloads of sand transform the square into a beach with palm trees, a beach ball court, swimming pool, paddling pool, beach cafes, deck chairs and umbrellas. It is not clear that this tremendous investment will be sufficient to maintain the future economic and social vitality of the square.
Regierungspräsident Dr. Sven von Ungern-Sternberg, Governor of the State of Süd-Baden and former First Mayor for the City of Freiburg explained policies adopted by the entire region around Freiburg (including adjacent Alsace in France) to strengthen the economic vitality of the region’s cities and towns. Very effective has been the agreement to limit large scale commercial development within a 30 km radius of major cities.
Related to this is the strategy adopted by the city of Freiburg, to sustain the variety of economic services in the center of the city by providing opportunities for department stores to be located adjacent to the square in new buildings appropriately scaled and designed to fit with the surrounding medieval scale. To ensure that people from the region come to the center of the old city to shop Freiburg has developed the best integrated public transportation system.
The European Square under threat
Conference delegates agreed that the investment in this extraordinarily powerful invention, the multi-functional European square, is now being squandered. Its economic importance as a marketplace, its potential to socialize young people, to generate dialogue, to foster a sense of community, and to reinforce democratic social structures are being systematically undermined by four interconnected trends:
- Uncontrolled commercial and suburban development at the city’s periphery
- Mass tourism that turns the historic square into a tourist attraction
- The square’s increasing mono-functional character
- Promotion of information technology that attempts to replace the European square with the “virtual agora”.
The first threat to the square is uncontrolled investment at the city’s periphery that drains life away from the city center. Discount stores and commercial strips at the periphery diminish the economic functions of a central square; suburban sprawl creates a car dependent population located too far from the square to be able to use it.
A more appropriate solution to urban growth would be to maintain the center of the city as mixed use, and to expand by developing semi-autonomous mixed-use new neighborhoods around the periphery, each a microcosm of the historic city, organized around its own multi-functional market place. This approach was impossible under twentieth century “modern” planning principles, but should become the preferred solution in a more enlightened twenty-first century.
A second threat to the square is the growth of mass tourism which transforms the most beautiful and interesting place in the historic city – the square – into a tourist attraction, turning the town hall into a museum, the grocery shop into a souvenir shop, the mixed-use shop/houses into hotels and pensions. Strategies must be developed to protect the resident-based businesses against pressures from the tourist industry. Mechanisms that have been used include city ownership of key centrally located buildings (Nový Jičín), quotas for tourist-oriented businesses, and laws governing permissible levels of rent increases (Antwerp).
The third threat to the square is from increasing specialization of building uses. Since the square is often considered the “best address” in the city corporations, chain stores and banks compete to locate there, often displacing residential uses and diverse small businesses less able to afford increasingly high rents. Strategies to protect diversity of building use include laws protecting residential uses (Tübingen).
The fourth threat to the European square is from some promoters of information technology whose excessive claims predict replacement of the real city by the “virtual city”, and social life on the square by “chat rooms” and e-mail messages. Some of our youth have already been inducted into “life on the screen” with its associated violence and anomie. Will they be sufficiently skilled in social interaction to participate in social life on the square?
Professor Thomas Martineau pointed out that not all squares play the same role in the city, that some cities have several squares, and there are hierarchies of squares. Major squares such as Munich’s Marienplatz are centrally located and identified as the “heart” of the city. Secondary squares, such as Freiburg’s Rathausplatz and Kartoffelmarkt are often used for particular events or special markets, or by particular population groups; and neighborhood squares, such as the many Venetian campi, are the focal point of neighborhood community life. Each of these types of squares is a “stage” for the life of the city; each one can be threatened; each one needs to be preserved but not “pickled”.
Organization to Protect the European Square
There was a consensus among delegates that the time has come to join together to protect the multi-functional European square. Delegates called for an organization to coordinate exchange of information and expertise among cities with squares. “I hope that from this conference will be born a permanent link between cities that have squares, and professionals and scholars interested in squares; and that this body will work to understand and protect squares and the community values they represent” said Edoardo Salzano. Professor Thomas Martineau pointed out that such an organization would be of interest not only within Europe, but also to an international community of scholars and practitioners concerned with urban space design around the world.
For more information contact: Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard Ph.D.(Arch.), Director, IMCL Council, E-mail: Suzanne.Lennard@livablecities.org.
Speakers included: Karl Auwärter (Munich, Germany); Professor Günther Bauer, former Director of the Salzburg Mozarteum, Salzburg’s University for Music and the Arts (Salzburg, Austria); Giuseppe Barbieri, Architetto (Padova, Italy); Krzysztof Bieda, Professor of Architecture, Krakow Technical University and former Chief Architect, (Krakow, Poland); Suzanne Crowhurst Lennard (Director, IMCL, Chairperson); Mayor Giustina Mistrello Destro, (Padova, Italy); Councillor Libor Dobeš (Nový Jičín, Czech Republic); Bertrand Guidon (Rennes, France); Prof. Ivan Juras (Zagreb, Croatia); Jörg-Hans Kaiser, Stadtbaurat, (Steyr, Austria); Mag. Pavel Kalous (Director of Culture & Education (Liberec, Czech Republic); Dr. Zora Kudělková (Nový Jičín, Czech Republic); Thomas Kulenkampff, Stadtbaurat (Hildesheim, Germany); Behavioral scientist Professor Henry Lennard (Carmel, USA); Prof. Mustafa Letaim (Tripoli, Libya); Isabelle Marquart, (Jena, Germany); Professor Thomas Martineau (Tallahassee, USA); Mayor Robert Morrow (Hamilton, Canada); Jitka Mrázková, Magister, (Liberec, Czech Republic); Andreas Rapp (Vöcklabruck, Austria); Edoardo Salzano, former Mayor for Urban Affairs, Dean of Venice University School of Planning (Venice, Italy); Bürgermeister Christoph Schwind, (Jena, Germany); Assessore Umberto Sparano (Vigevano, Italy); Ing. Jitka Strasserová, Manager of Culture, (Liberec, Czech Republic); Regierungspräsident Dr. Sven von Ungern-Sternberg, Governor of the State of Süd-Baden, former First Mayor for Urban Planning, (Freiburg, Germany); Dr. Italo Tavoschi, Vice Sindaco (Udine, Italy); Jiří Vaniček, former Mayor of Tabor (Czech Republic); Simone Villa, City of Vigevano, (Italy); Mayor Hermann Vogler (Ravensburg, Germany); Vit Zeman, Magistrát, City of Jihlava, (Czech Republic).