Recommended Reading

Below you will find a list of books that we believe contribute to the dialog of how to make our cities more livable. Many of the authors have spoken at our conferences, some came before our time but are still highly influencial to this day, and finally, some have become Board Members and good friends. If you know of a book that should be in our list, please let us know!

Livable Cities

  • Tony Aldous, Urban Villages. A concept for creating mixed-use developments on a sustainable level, United Kingdom, Urban Villages Group, 1992.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard, Sven von Ungern-Sternberg, & Henry L. Lennard, (Eds.) Making Cities Livable. Wege zur menschlichen Stadt. Carmel, CA, Gondolier Press, 1997.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard & Henry L. Lennard, Livable Cities Observed. A Source Book of Images and Ideas for City Officials, Community Leaders, Architects, Planners, and All Others Committed to Making Their Cities Livable. Carmel, CA, Gondolier Press, 1995.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard & Henry L. Lennard, Livable Cities, Social and Design Principles for the Future of the City. Southampton, N.Y., Gondolier Press, 1987.
  • Andreas Feldtkeller, Die Zweckentfremdete Stadt, Frankfurt-New York, Campus Verlag, 1994.
  • Jan Gehl, Cities for People. Washington, Island Press, 2010
  • Victor Gruen, Die lebenswerte Stadt. Munich, List Verlag, 1975.
  • Victor Gruen, The Heart of Our Cities. N.Y., Simon and Schuster, 1964.
  • Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. N.Y., Random House, 1961.
  • Paul L. Knox and Heike Mayer, Small Town Sustainability. Economic, Social, and Environmental Innovation. Basel, Boston, Berlin, Birkhäuser, 2009
  • Henry L. Lennard & Suzanne Crowhurst Lennard, (Eds.) The Wisdom of Cities. Architecture, Place, Community, Neighborhood, Identity, Planning & Values. Carmel, CA. Gondolier Press. 2005.
  • Gianni Longo, Cities of Vision, in Making Cities Livable Newsletter, Vol. 3.
  • Alexander Mitscherlich, Die Unwirtlichkeit unserer Städte. Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp Verlag, 1969.
  • Alexander Mitscherlich, Thesen zur Stadt der Zukunft, Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp Verlag, 1971.
  • Cyril B. Paumier et al. Designing the Successful Downtown. The Urban Land Institute, 1988.
  • Barbara Ward, The Home of Man. N.Y., W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., 1976.
  • William H. Whyte, City. Rediscovering the Center, New York, Doubleday, 1988.


  • Klaus Andrae, et al, Marktplaetze. Berlin, Henschelverlag Kunst u. Gesellschaft, 1990.
  • Heinz Coubier, Europäische Stadt-Plätze. Genius und Geschichte. Cologne, DuMont Buchverlag, 1985
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard & Henry L. Lennard, Genius of the European Square. How Europe's traditional multi-functional squares support social life and civic engagement. Carmel, CA, Gondolier Press, 2008.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard & Henry L. Lennard, Public Life in Urban Places: the Lessons of the Venetian Campo, in Stepping Out in Urban Design, the 6th Boulder Pedestrian Conference Proceedings, City of Boulder, 1985.
  • George Collins and Christiane Collins, Camillo Sitte and the Birth of Modern City Planning. Columbia Studies in Art History and Archeology No. 3. London. Phaidon Press, 1965.
  • Jan Gehl and Lars Gemzøe, New City Spaces. Copenhagen, The Danish Architectural Press, 2001
  • August Heckscher, Open Spaces – The Life of American Cities. N.Y. Harper & Row, 1977.
  • Setha M. Low, On the Plaza. The Politics of Public Space and Culture. Austin, University of Texas Press, 2000.
  • Franco Mancuso & Krzysztof Kowalski (Eds.), Squares of Europe, Squares for Europe. Krakow, Poland, Jagiellonian University Press, 2007
  • Pierre Pinon, Places & Parvis. France, Imprimerie nationale Éditions, 1999
  • Wilfredo Rincón, Plazas de España. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, SA, 1999
  • Camillo Sitte, The Art of Building Cities, Translated by Charles T. Stewart. Westport, C.T., Hyperion Press, Inc., 1979.
  • Touring Club Italiano, Piazze d’Italia. Milan, Touring Editore srl, 1998
  • Michael Webb, The City Square, New York, Whiteney Library of Design, 1990.
  • Paul Zucker, Town and Square. From the Agora to the Village Green. New York, Columbia University Press, 1959.

Social Interaction

  • Hannah Arendt, Men in Dark Times, N.Y. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1968.
  • Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1958.
  • Peter L. Berger, Invitation to Sociology. N.Y., Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1963.
  • Martin Buber, Dialogue, in Between Man and Man. MacMillan Publ. Co., 1965.
  • Martin Buber, Distance and Relation, in Psychiatry, Vol. 20, 1957.
  • Luciano De Crescenza, Thus Spake Bellavista, London, Picador Pan Books, 1988.
  • Rene Dubos, So Human an Animal, N.Y., Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968. p. 194.
  • Leon Eisenberg, The Human Nature of Human Nature, in Science, April 1972.
  • Henry L. Lennard & Arnold Bernstein, Patterns in Human Interaction. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publ., 1970.
  • Henry L. Lennard & Arnold Bernstein, The Anatomy of Psychotherapy, New York, Columbia University Press, 1960.
  • Henry L. Lennard, et. al., Mystification and Drug Misuse, New York, Perennial Library, Harper & Row Publ., 1972.
  • Paul Pfuetze, Self, Society, Existence. N.Y., Harper, 1961.
  • Georg Simmel, Die Geselligkeit in Grundfragen der Soziologie. Berlin, Sammlung, Goeschen Band 1101, Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1970.

Social Life in Public

  • Clare Cooper Marcus & Carolyn Francis, People Places. Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard & Henry L. Lennard, Public Life in Urban Places. Southampton, N.Y., Gondolier Press, 1984.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard & Henry L. Lennard, Public Life in Urban Places: the Lessons of the Venetian Campo, in Stepping Out in Urban Design, the 6th Boulder Pedestrian Conference Proceedings, City of Boulder, 1985.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard & Henry L. Lennard, Urban Space Design and Social Life, in Ben Farmer & Hentie Louw (Editors), Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought, London & New York, Routledge 1993. pp. 39-43.
  • Jan Gehl, Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space. N.Y., VanNostrand Reinhold Co., Inc., 1987.
  • Lawrence Halprin, Urban Rituals, in Cities: The Forces that Shape Them. Edited by Lisa Taylor. N.Y., Cooper-Hewitt Museum, 1982.
  • E.T.A. Hoffmann, My Cousin's Corner Window, in The Golden Pot and Other Tales, translated and edited by Ritchie Robertson, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992.
  • Henry L. Lennard & Suzanne Crowhurst Lennard, Ethics of Public Places in Stepping Out in Urban Design, the 6th Boulder Pedestrian Conference, City of Boulder, 1985.
  • Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place. New York, Paragon House, 1991.
  • Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man, New York, Vintage Books, 1978.
  • Richard Sennett, The Conscience of the Eye: the design and social life of cities, New York, Knopf, 1991.
  • Robert Sommer, Social Design: Creating Buildings with People in Mind. Englewood Cliffs. N.J., Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1983.
  • Max Weber, The City. Translated and edited by Don Martindale and Gertrud Neuwirth. N.Y., The Free Press, 1958.
  • William H. Whyte, The Gifted Pedestrian, in Ekistics. 303 May/June 1984.
  • William H. Whyte, A Guide to Peoplewatching, in Urban Open Spaces. Lisa Taylor (Ed.). N.Y., Cooper-Hewitt Museum, 1979.
  • William H. Whyte, The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, D.C., The Conservation Foundation, 1980.

Social Capital and Community

  • Wendell Berry, What are People For? San Francisco, North Point Press, 1990.
  • Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone. The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York, Simon & Schuster, 2000
  • Robert D. Putnam and Lewis M. Feldstein, Better Together. Restoring the American Community. New York, Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2004


  • Peter L. Benson, All Kids Are Our Kids. What Communities Must Do to Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
  • Paul Friedberg & Ellen Perry Berkeley, Play and Interplay. N.Y., MacMillan Co., 1970.
  • Elizabeth Goodenough, (Ed.). A Place for Play. National Institute for Play, 2008.
  • Stanley I. Greenspan, M.D., with Beryl Lieff Benderley, The Growth of the Mind and the Endangered Origins of Intelligence, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Books, 1997.
  • J. Huizinga, Homo Ludens. A Study of the Play-Element in Culture, New York, Roy Publishers, 1950.
  • Peter H. Kahn, Jr., Stephen R. Kellert, Children and Nature. Psychological, Sociocultural, and Evolutionary Investigations. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2002.
  • Henry L. Lennard & Suzanne Crowhurst Lennard, The Forgotten Child. Cities for the Well-Being of Children. Carmel, CA. Gondolier Press, 2000.
  • Richard Louv, Last Child in the Woods, Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, Algonquin Books, 2006.
  • Richard Louv, Childhood's Future. Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin Co, 1990.
  • Colin Ward, The Child in the City. London, The Architectural Press, Ltd., 1978.

Significance of the Built Environment

  • Donald Appleyard, The Environment as a Social Symbol in Ekistics. 278 Sept/Oct 1979.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard, Explorations in the Meaning of Architecture, Woodstock, N.Y., Gondolier Press, 1979.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard, Architecture as Autobiography, in The Humanist, Sept/Oct. 1983.
  • ]ean Gath, The Preservation of Social Landmarks, in Making Cities Livable Newsletter; Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 6-7.
  • Wolfgang Schulz, Criteria for Urban Aesthetics, in Making Cities Livable Newsletter, Vol. 4, No. 1/2, 1994.

Problems of Urban Sprawl

  • James Howard Kunstler, The Geography of Nowhere. The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape, New York, A Touchstone Book publ. by Simon & Schuster, 1993.
  • James Howard Kunstler, Home From Nowhere. Remaking Our Everyday World for the 21st Century. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1996
  • Michael Sorkin (Ed.), Variations on a Theme Park. The New American City and the End of Public Space. New York, Noonday Press, 1992
  • Philip Langdon, A Better Place to Live. Reshaping the American Suburb. Amherst, The University of Massachusetts Press, 1994
  • Robert D. Kaplan, An Empire Wilderness. Travels into America’s Future. New York, Random House, 1998
  • Douglas E. Morris, It’s a Sprawl World After All. The Cost of Unplanned Growth – and Visions of a Better Future. Gabriola Island, Canada, New Society Publishers, 2005

Health and the Built Environment

  • Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, & Richard Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health. Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities. Washington, Island Press, 2004.
  • Howard Frumkin, Cities, Suburbs, and Urban Sprawl. Their Impact on Health, in Cities and the Health of the Public. Ed. Nicholas Freudenberg et al. Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press, 2006
  • Joel S. Hirschhorn, Sprawl Kills. How Blandburbs Steal Your Time, Health and Money. New York, Sterling & Ross, 2005

Walkable Cities

  • Donald Appleyard, Livable Streets. Berkeley, Cal., University of California Press, 1981.
  • Simon Breines & William J. Dean, The Pedestrian Revolution. N.Y., Vintage Books, 1974.
  • Dietrich Garbrecht, Walking: facts, assertions, propositions in Ekistics 273, Nov/Dec. 1978.
  • Dietrich Garbrecht, Gehen, Plädoyer für das Leben in der Stadt. Basel, Beltz Verlag, 1981.
  • Dietrich Garbrecht, Walkability: a prerequisite for livable cities, in Ben Farmer & Hentie Louw (Editors) Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought, London & New York, Routledge. 1993. pp.101-104.
  • David Lewis, The Pedestrian in the City. London, Elek Books.
  • Gianni Longo and Roberto Brambilla, For Pedestrians Only: Planning, Design and Management of Traffic-Free Zones. N.Y, Whitney Library of Design, Watson-Guptill Publs., 1977.
  • RoIf Monheim, Fussgängerbereich. Cologne, Reihe E DST-Beitr äge zur Stadtentwicklung H. 4, 1975.
  • Rolf Monheim, Successful Pedestrian Areas in Making Cities Livable Newsletter, February 1987.
  • Paulhans Peters, Fussgängerstadt. Munich, Callwey, Verlag, 1977.
  • Bernard Rudofsky, Streets for People. Garden City. N.Y. Doubleday, 1969.
  • Klaus Uhlig, Die Fussgängerfreudliche Stadt. Stuttgart, Verlag Gerd Hatje, 1979.


  • Peter L. Berger, A Rumor of Angels, Garden City, N.Y., Anchor Books, Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1970.
  • Harvey Cox, The Feast of Fools. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1969
  • Alexander Orloff, Carnival – Myth and Cult. Perlinger, 1980.
  • Josef Pieper, In Tune With the World: A Theory of Festivity, Richard & Clara Winston, trans., New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1965.
  • Anton Zijderveld, Reality in a Looking-Glass. London, Routledge & Kegen Paul, 1982.

Public Art

  • Dieter Boeminghaus, Bonifatius Stirnberg. Sculptures for Towns, Aachen, Sepia Verlag. 1987.
  • Suzanne H. Crowhurst Lennard, Toward Criteria for Art in Public Spaces, in Urban Land, March 1987.
  • Ronald Lee Fleming & Renata Von Tscharner, Place Makers. Creating Public Art that Tells You Where You Are. New York. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publ., 1987.
  • Ronald Lee Fleming & Renata Von Tscharner, Place Makers, in The City as a Stage. Kevin W. Green (Ed.), Washington, D.C., Partners for Livable Places, 1983.
  • Bonifatius Stirnberg, Recent Works. Presentation given at the 1st International Conference on Making Cities Livable, June 6-10, 1985, Venice, Italy.
  • Lewis Mumford, In the Name of Sanity. N.Y., Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1954.
  • Wolf von Eckardt, Live the Good Life. N.Y., American Council for the Arts, 1982.

Urban Design

  • Christopher Alexander et al., A New Theory of Urban Design, New York & Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1987.
  • Gordon Cullen, The Concise Townscape, N.Y., VanNostrand Reinhold Co., 1961.
  • Reid Ewing, Developing Successful New Communities, Washington D.C., 1991.
  • Nathan Glazer, Subverting the Context: Public Space and Public Design in The Public Interest, No. 109, Fall 1992. pp. 3-21.
  • Peter Katz, The New Urbanism, New York & San Francisco, McGraw Hill, Inc., 1994.
  • Edoardo Salzano, Fondamenti di Urbanistica. Rome-Bari, Gius, Laterza & Figli, 1998
  • Edoardo Salzano, La Città Sostenibile. Rome, Edizioni delle Autonomie, 1992
  • Edoardo Salzano, L’Italia a Sacco. Rome, Editori Riunito, 1993
  • Edoardo Salzano, La Città Bene Comune. Bologna, Ogni uomo è Tutti gli Uomini Edizioni, 2009
  • Edoardo Salzano, Lo Scandalo del Lido. Venice, Corte del Fontego editore, 2011
  • Edoardo Salzano, La Laguna di Venezia. Venice, Corte del Fontego editore, 2011
  • Vincent Scully, Afterword in The New Urbanism, New York & San Francisco, McGraw Hill, Inc., 1994.


  • Brent C. Brolin, Architecture in Context. Fitting new buildings with old. N.Y., Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1980.
  • Norman Crowe, Richard Economakis & Michael Lykoudis (Eds.), Building Cites. Towards a Civil Society and Sustainable Environment. London, Artmedia Press, 1999
  • Raymond J. Curran, Architecture and the Urban Experience. N.Y., VanNostrand Reinhold Co., 1983.
  • Ben Farmer & Hentie Louw (Editors), Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought, London & New York, Routledge, 1993.
  • Nathan Glazer & Mark Lilla (Eds.). The Public Face of Architecture. N.Y., The Free Press, 1987.
  • Rod Hackney, The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. London, Frederick Muller, 1990.
  • H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, A Vision of Britain. A Personal View of Architecture, London, Doubleday, 1989.
  • Lucien Kroll, Architecture in the making – The anatomy of building, in Ben Farmer & Hentie Louw (Editors), Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought, London & New York, Routledge, 1993. pp. 424-430.
  • G.E. Kidder Smith, Italy Builds: Its Modern Architecture and Native Inheritance. N.Y., Reinhold Publishing Co., 1955.
  • Donald MacDonald, Democratic Architecture. Practical Solutions to Today’s Housing Crisis. New York, Whitney Library of Design, 1996
  • Ettore Maria Mazzola, Architecture and Town Planning Operating Instructions. Saving Architecture Might Save the Italian Economy. Rome, Gangemi Editore, 2006
  • Nick Wates & Charles Knevitt, Community Architecture. How People are Creating Their Own Environment. London, Penguin Books. 1987.


  • Marcel Brion, Venice, The Masque of Italy. N.Y., Crown Publ. 1962.
  • Bernard Berenson, Italian Painters of the Renaissance. I Venetian and North Italian Schools. London & New York, Phaidon, 1952. p. xi.
  • Andre Fraigneau, The Venice I Love. N.Y., Tudor Publ. Co., 1965.
  • W.D. Howells, Venetian Life. Boston, James R. Osgood & Co., 1878.
  • Henry James, Italian Hours. N.Y, Horizon Press, 1968.
  • William M. Milliken, Unfamiliar Venice. Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University Press, 1967.
  • Fulvio Roiter, Venetian Carnival. Milan, Co. Graf SRL Editore. 1985.
  • Henry Tanner, Carnival in Venice Brings Back a Bit of Past, New York Times, Feb. 20, 1980.
  • Diego Valeri, A Sentimental Guide to Venice. Translation by Cecil C. Palmer. Milan, Aldo Martello, editore.
  • Achatz Von Müller, Der Venezianische Karneval in Rolf D. Schwarz, K arneval in Venedig. Dortmund, Die bibliophilen Taschenb ücher No.422, Harenberg Kommunikation, 1983.

European Cities

  • Judith Hook, Siena. A City and its History. London, Hamish Hamilton.
  • Jef Vanreusel (Editor), Antwerp – Reshaping a City. Blondé Artprinting International, 1990.
  • Johannes Voggenhuber, Berichte an den Souverän. Salzburg: Der Bürger und seine Stadt. Salzburg & Vienna, Residenz Verlag, 1988.

History of Cities

  • Donald Appleyard, The Conservation of European Cities. Cambridge, MA, M.I.T. Press, 1979.
  • Leonardo Benevolo, The History of the City, London, Scholar Press, 1980.
  • Ernst Gombrich, The Beauty of Old Towns in Reflections on the History of Art, Berkeley, California, University of California Press. 1987.
  • E. A. Gutkind, Urban Development in Southern Europe: Spain and Portugal. New York, The Free Press, 1967.
  • E. A. Gutkind, Urban Development in Central Europe. New York, The Free Press, 1967.
  • Spiro Kostof, The City Assembled. The Elements of Urban Form Through History. London, Thames & Hudson Ld. 1992
  • Spiro Kostoff. The City Shaped. Urban Patterns & Meanings Through History. London, Thames & Hudson, Ltd.. 1991
  • Jacques LeGoff, Die Liebe zur Stadt. Eine Erkundung vom Mittelalter bis zur Jahrtausendwende. Frankfurt/New York, Campus Verlag, 1997
  • Ettore Maria Mazzola (Ed.), “A Counter History” of Modern Architecture: Rome 1900-1940. Florence, Italy, Alinea editrice, 2004
  • Lewis Mumford, The City in History. Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects. N.Y., Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1961.
  • Henri Pirenne, Medieval Cities. Their Origins and the Revival of Trade. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1974.
  • James E. Vance, Jr., This Scene of Man. The Role and Structure of the City in the Geography of Western Civilization. New York, Harper’s College Press, 1977
  • Richard E. Wycherly, How the Greeks Built Cities. New York, Doubleday & Co, 1969.

Nature in the City

  • Timothy Beatley, Green Urbanism. Learning from European Cities, Washington DC, Island Press, 2000.
  • Reinhard Grebe, Leben in der Stadt. Mensch, Natur, Gärten, Nürnberg, 1982.
  • Stephen R. Kellert, Judith H. Heerwagen, Martin L. Mador, (Eds.) Biophilic Design. The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, 2008.
  • Stephen R. Kellert, Building for Life. Designing and Understanding the Human-Nature Connection. Washington, Island Press, 2005.

Transportation Planning

  • Lewis Mumford, The Highway and the City. N.Y. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1963.
  • Hartmut H. Topp, Philosophy and Mechanisms of Traffic Calming in Making Cities Livable Newsletter, March/December 1991. p. 46.
  • Hartmut Topp. Transport in Cities, in Ben Farmer & Hentie Louw (Editors), Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought, London & New York, Routledge, 1993. pp. 95-100.

Holistic Approach

  • Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind, New York, Ballantine Books, 1972.
  • Gregory Bateson, Sacred Unity. Further Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York, Harper Collins, 1991
  • Walter B. Cannon, The Wisdom of the Body, New York, W.W. Norton Co., Inc., 1932.
  • H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, Harmony. A New Way of Looking at Our World. New York, Harper Collins, 2010
  • Konrad Lorenz, On Life and Learning, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1990.